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A-Level Physics Revision : Radioactive Decay

A-Level Physics Revision : Types of Radioactive Decay

A-Level Physics Revision : The Strong Nuclear Force

A-Level Physics Revision : Hadrons

Hadrons are not fundamental particles they are all made from smaller particles, quarks. The properties of a hadron are due to the combined properties of the quarks that it is made from. There are two categories of Hadrons: Baryons and Mesons


Examples are neutrons and protons . These are made from three quarks.


These are made from a quark and an antiquark. Examples are Pion Plus, Pion Zero, Kaon Plus and Kaon Zero.

A-Level Physics Revision : Quarks

Quarks are thought to be fundamental particles . There are six different quarks and each one has its own antiparticle.

The other three quarks are Charm, Bottom and Top. It is important to remember that quarks never appear on their own. The energy required to pull two quarks apart is so large that it is enough to make two new particles. A quark and an antiquark are created, another example of pair production. A particle called a neutral pion is made from an up quark and an antiup quark. Moving these apart creates another up quark and an antiup quark. We now have two pairs of quarks. Therefore, trying to separate two quarks results in two more quarks.

Quarks are the smallest building blocks and we can separate all other particles into two groups, those made from quarks and those that aren’t made from quarks. Hadrons – Heavy and made from smaller particles . Leptons – Light and not made from smaller particles